Poetry

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Poetry

I. Rhyme and Rhyme-Related Figures

I.1. Rhyme

1. The definition of rhyme

2. The basic types of rhyme: masculine and feminine

3. The position and function of rhyme

Exercises

I.2. Assonance

Exercises

I.3. Consonance

Exercises

I.4. Alliteration

Exercises

I.5. Eye-rhyme

I.6. Enjambment

I.7. Rhyme-schemes, stanza patterns

1. Rhyme-schemes

2. Stanza patterns

3. The function of rhyme schemes and stanza patterns

Exercises

II. Verse, Versification

II.1. Accentual Syllabic Verse (Metre, Metrics)

1. The definition of metre and of accentual syllabic verse

2. Feet and lines in accentual syllabic verse

3. A few hints on scansion

4. The function of metrics, the use of scansion

Exercises

II.2. Combinations of accentual syllabic verse and rhyme patterns

Exercises

II.3. Accentual verse

Exercises

II.4. Free verse

III. Poetic Forms and Genres

IV. Exercises

V. Links

from John Milton: Paradise Lost

Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful seat,
Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed
In the beginning how the heavens and earth
Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill
Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed
Fast by the oracle of God, I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th' Aonian mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme.



This is how Milton announces his theme and his ambitious programme in the opening sentence of his Paradise Lost. The blank verse is combined here with complex but rhetorically controlled sentence structure, with elevated diction (choice of words) and with biblical, mythological and poetic allusions. All these features confirm the dignified, serious and elevated tone that this blank verse passage conveys.

 
 

from S. T. Coleridge: Frost at Midnight

The Frost performs its secret ministry,
Unhelped by any wind. The owlet's cry
Came loud—and hark, again! loud as before.
The inmates of my cottage, all at rest,
Have left me to that solitude, which suits
Abstruser musings: save that at my side
My cradled infant slumbers peacefully.
'Tis calm indeed! so calm, that it disturbs
And vexes meditation with its strange
And extreme silentness. Sea, hill, and wood,
This populous village! Sea, and hill, and wood,
With all the numberless goings-on of life,
Inaudible as dreams! the thin blue flame
Lies on my low-burnt fire, and quivers not;
Only that film, which fluttered on the grate,
Still flutters there, the sole unquiet thing.
Methinks, its motion in this hush of nature
Gives it dim sympathies with me who live,
Making it a companionable form,
Whose puny flaps and freaks the idling Spirit
By its own moods interprets, every where
Echo or mirror seeking of itself,
And makes a toy of Thought.



This is how Coleridge announces the theme of his blank verse poem. The sentence structure is simple and natural, the circumstances described are common and everyday, the theme announced is the inner movement of the speaker’s ‘idling Spirit’. The blank verse form is used here thus to suggest spontaneity and to convey a familiar and intimate tone.